:��c �a^AU�ꬢZ+r�vZQ �S[��/�:�]�����FZo6�2Y��F��p���lo3�+ E��m���G�\م�����`2������]�HG 4 The WHO recommended annual guideline for PM2.5 is 10 μg/m3.. Kenya does not currently have daily and annual ambient standards for PM2.5. The study covered four sampling sites located along the river, stretching from upstream at Ondiri swamp then moving to Museum Hill Bridge then further down to Race Course and finally downstream at Outer Ring Road Bridge. Heavy metals are known to accumulate in the plants then passed to the humans through the food chain. This water is often contaminated by toxic heavy metals leaching from the dumpsite. endstream endobj 893 0 obj <>stream Its effects have been so dire that Introduction Water pollution is the result of human activities that makes the water dangerous to human beings, unfit for industrial use and adversely affects the aquatic fauna and flora among others. 889 0 obj <> endobj Ö͑cöTRȋ,&9;âˆ}cϝÛHÄ>ؔ~M©È&Á¤ÀÈ¿ß*ïÌmtñ]tÑ`póa;[žˆ‡iÅò•°)wfä@Â>‹acý‹°_†`_§1"W3D¸¢±ÞeÒ¬{8ˆ‡‹)%®Ûf¶¬RxÓQy˜ì•x\Y.­À(ÁP®ì´…ë5“ñzUøe[.MwT6Â^$6‚Eõܖ×5¾^ɘS*7'0¶O=g»TèUÈ|šsf‹Dè"çxŸsç– reports related to the Nairobi River Basin Project (NRBP)-Phase II. But that was then. 5, DO, QUAL2K, River Pollution, Water Quality Modeling 1. H�|UMO1��W�і�����n$�ZR��U���E�A���������������瓳1y:::�ZUV�&OT�J�J�ȵsn�`J[��|��g�B���M�Å���Ʌw��p�� ��֝��E Being a tributary of Athi River, it also contributes to water supply of Nairobi City. 9(1 1): November 2016 579 ISSN 0974-4169 (P rint) www.ajrconline.org 0974-4150 (O nline) RESEARCH ARTICLE The State of Water Quality in Nairobi River, Kenya The pollution is mind-boggling,” says Dorothy McCormick, a Nairobi university economics researcher and author of books on African transport. �P�F�͌��. ɤL��{ �h��l��e��@y����:B9�X(���MD�v&�*���\E�"9��N�����d�e�y��m$��ȱ�$�׍��v?��O�^L�nLo��!>C����8c�!��L�kn�fCK�QO�2�[�^Y���G����\.��L4��`�!�*� �U"F �O��\A �zt.N{f��Cf8��Zc��P��` It also goes by another local name of Enkare Nairobi, meaning cool water in the Maasai language, a reference to the Nairobi river that flows through the city. �Ӳ���t2i��y���mT:TV@�2�������w5�GuuU����uV�̗U7o�����` Nairobi is a city located in Kenya, one of the largest cities in the country and also the capital. Nema has asked the public to report cases of pollution and aid in efforts to rehabilitate the river. How Bad is Air Pollution in Kenya? Keywords: bioaccumulation, fish, Fourteen Falls, metal, Nairobi River, pollution 1. sewerage matter is drained into the rivers.Surely this inhuman.The water in Mathare and Nairobi river is a good case scenario to this.Almost all the household surrounding this rivers dispose of their toilet effluents into the rivers.This creates a health hazard and possible future outcomes of diseases like cholera ,typhoid and bilharzia. The sources of water for Nairobi River sub-basins are the Ondiri springs, the Kabete and Karura forests, the Ngong hills, and all the streams which join 910 0 obj <>stream www.intechopen.com. Pollution impact. : +254 20 762 1234 Fax: +254 20 762 3927 e-mail: publications@unep.org www.unep.org www.unep.org Despite various attempts to restore it over the past decades, the river continues to choke with garbage, industrial waste, agro and petro chemicals, heavy metals and other pollutants, which have caused the extinction of aquatic life and turned the river into an eyesore. Water supply and sanitation in Nairobi is characterised by achievements and challenges. A lot happens along the course of the Nairobi River as it makes its way from the north west to the south east of the city. Box 30552 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Tel. R� ���:�h��w�|�CP��$��~�CR�Y�!�K{�]$�6��$f�20N�X���h��x��&k��v.�[�9�t/N��0��Q�$a?LA�0'ev��^d��!��q&���ԳN$G;x�TZQͥѢe�$��܎q|F,%��J��5J����十��m]�c��� ���Ǭ_���9#S��f)����~�������Yt�|�N���Zب:lT��U���%oz��a`#��\��^����o��:3;\�~l���m�e��e6�2D���,Ӫ���Ic�:e�|���|8���^����_t l�����7���_w���k�)��Ŭ���ni�V�ӬMm�Z����e:m��~�^���+��3����D�+N��U�!l�,�����^���Z���4�7��F���mB���x��5t���p��@������:�C�m~]��%������jϚꗵ����������zI�3|q��FZC;�]��?R���j�Q�� �� Other research reports which indicate water quality deterioration in Kenya and the study basins are those by Njunguna (1978) and Ongwenyi (1979). 0 The 390 km Nairobi river which resides 56% of the state’s population on its bank has been polluted for 75 years straight, unabated.Authorities have acknowledged that 2475 tons of waste is produced every day throughout the city and most of it goes directly into the river.. The study focused on the levels of pollution in industrial effluents discharged into the section of Ngong River flowing adjacent to Nairobi’s Industrial area and how this pollution affected the river pollution levels. Nairobi River water, all the way from Lavington to Dandora, was a sparkling wonder a few decades ago. The State of Water Quality in Nairobi River, Ken ya 1 Damaris Mbui, 1,2 Emily Chebet*, 1 Geoffrey Kamau, 2 Joshua Kibet* 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P .O. The program seeks to rehabilitate Nairobi River and its network of tributaries by identifying and sustainably addressing sources of river pollution, reclaiming riparian land … It abounded with fish and creatures like the water beetle. If the Nairobi River were a human being, it would have choked to death by now. endstream endobj startxref Its main focus is on water quality monitoring and assessment of the Motoine/Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River, over the last two decades. Nairobi River has been on the receiving end from various companies and posh estates that dispose of waste into the river including untreated sewage. Email hnnjenga@uonbi.ac.ke . h�b```�rvM``��0pL00 re���f~HnJ{,%)rGH�����R����j�#�,��@&cS.C@�30���@�`Tf�a`��T��tZ���"7N3��jy��� E@��i�d+ ������m��U�� �) fyþ1u`3Apt€˜h-?¿KÐܯ•Càþs`qÂäÿM~¿»÷£¹(üûÁ…„ÿÙ_ÛɃ1/‰¥¥_³œX Research Chem. The Nairobi River, a tributary of the Athi River which passes through several densely populated areas, is one of the major contributors to pollution within the Athi River ecosystem. Njunguna (1978) also noted that pollution in the river (Nairobi-Athi-Sabaki) was chiefly due to domestic Water pollution often arises as a consequence, and not only does a low quality supply result, but there may also be a major reduction in its quantity. Water sources near the dumpsites are used as domestic water source for the people living near such sites. h�bbd``b`z$��e �" "V��y@�y+��D�A�Y�D&���������b``�M���� � �q These pollutants can affect the health of those who rely on the river, or live close to it. Box 30197-0001, Nairobi . Abstract . Introduction Intensive developments of industry, agricultural production and ever intensive urbanization have led to the in - crease in number of pollutants and the amount of wastewater which pollute water flows. A Snapshot of the World’s Water Quality: Towards a global assessment UNEP report A Snapshot of the World’s Water Quality: Towards a global assessment United Nations Environment Programme P.O. (AWSB) and Nairobi City Water and Sewerage Company (NCWSC) to offer improved sanitation services through institutional strengthening. water quality in general and DO (Dissolved Oxygen) concentrations in particular. Ngong river rises from an altitude of about 1,980 m a.s.l and drains into the Nairobi River at 1,525 m a.s.l (Krhoda, 2002). Water from Kikuyu, Kawangware, Chiromo, Eastleigh, Njiru and Fourteen Falls along the Nairobi River was analyzed for the presence of metals. Kangundo River Bridge is composed of deeply weathered Nairobi phonolites. Njunguna (1978) also added that pollution in the river (Nairobi-Athi-Sabaki) was chiefly due to domestic waste, industrial wastes and runoff (both rural and urban). %%EOF toxic heavy metal pollution from the wastes. endstream endobj 890 0 obj <>/Metadata 41 0 R/Outlines 59 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 885 0 R/StructTreeRoot 74 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 891 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 892 0 obj <>stream Most of the metal levels in water were below the critical limit of World Health Organization and Kenya Bureau of Standards except for lead, chromium, iron and manganese. On the contrary, the need for water of satisfying quality continuously grows. The discharges did not contribute to thermal pollution. It’s mainly used by residents of low … 902 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<47BFF0B1CB591342A7CE31F5A7D770E5>]/Index[889 22]/Info 888 0 R/Length 72/Prev 162215/Root 890 0 R/Size 911/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Recently, the national government in collaboration with Nairobi City launched the Nairobi River Regeneration program5. Vk�٧���)��\�a��TB�?,-�d*b���:�������>.����g;\�'�����4]�,�H�e %PDF-1.5 %���� A Study was conducted to determine the level of pollution in the Nairobi River. In 2016, Kenya’s dirty air contained more than two times as many of the deadly PM2.5 as the WHO guideline for outdoor air pollution (25.8 micrograms per cubic meter [μg/m3] ). This pollution has rendered the water throughout the Athi River basin non-potable and poses a significant health risk to all users (Nzuma, 2016). ��A�eТ�x�>���m�?���hD����eJ���I-��A�Y���1��)0=�[s@�5�U����b���9���K��9��V$�9!�[���j��w�?.�a������!� (�� President Kenyatta tasked the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), under the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, with the daunting task of cleaning up the river and sealing all sources of pollution and discharge of untreated water. A lot happens along the course of the Nairobi River as it makes its way from the north west to the south east of the city. amounts of pollutants to the Nairobi River, its tributaries and the main Athi River. Near the Nairobi suburb of Kamulu they observed extensive sand-mining, which has further disturbed and eroded the riverbed ecosystem. Recently, there has been growing public outrage about the pollution of urban waterways1 in Nairobi city. H��TMS�H��W�q��G�)��R�† dB%{`9#�IlY��ߧ����T���^zF�ׯ���L��v��j����~�U��� h�Ԗmk�0���>n�`�K�Rh���2��J?x�Iy)���?��R�N��6��"Y��|zr)���J�R7(�s�&Lr�&�0-Ac �L�IJu6���`�϶�ԭ1����"��N�UI�:d���b6/��"��W���&.�ٖ�׫��_���)eQG8u7�2OP���m��ӯcԏ�M^N���z���tWed(M��lQL�V�ENh2*��w„N�Ϗ9�Bʛ�\o��N�2��n��q0�z���d=-V��X]��Ex�m9�g���w�Gpǘ|�j�T2z�YB>��S����\�i9��c���(B�Q��0�~�[�� �h JC����N�$�1t'n=��]��\3�6E[��.����go瞕�{qp#qPmJY�$��t����zn�����t�T} �O%��`T��(�⓫\�� .�%�s�C�Еq����B�'� x�d}F��y�٭��`M���P�;���j��7j'*�HM _K"�H$����!Y_"M�� _�E��)P��Jh�#ӽJ ��y@.�:Ⱦ��:�[pO`Wv`���ԕ�(u��~���t�N� �m�c-��m(L�n��ޅ�/���C}�@g����y�X�.�~1n�NI�5#�ė��K����Ϥ�[�Γ���%d���㸅�#m;����mS{l�����P~�l���e����'j It’s mainly used by residents of low-income settlements as a source of water for cleaning homes, bathing and for watering crops. The catchment has a gentle slope of 1.01% except along specific channel sections where slopes range … P.O. This study focused on the analysis of metals in water and fish from Nairobi River. rrying activities in the construction of Nairobi/Waiyaki highway. š¹+MabÂD5°ˆÒXæ멼. Ndarugu River is one of the main sources of fresh water for domestic use to people of many villages and towns along the river bank. Land owners of the dumping area use the dumpsite and soils around for farming and water from the nearby Nairobi River is either used for irrigation or domestic purposes without regard to the risk of toxic metal pollution by the waste. CITY OF NAIROBI ENVIRONMENT OUTLOOK v FOREWORD Nairobi,.like.many.cities.in.Africa.is.experiencing.rapid.population.growth ..Combined.with.the. 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